Ethnocide and struggle of Guarani-Kaiowá by tekoha
Saturday, August 25, 2012
Ethnocide and struggle of Guarani-Kaiowá by tekoha
“” Since 1983 farmers have killed 583 indigenous. We, the indigenous peoples, we have never killed a farmer only, because we have no weapons and we are always being murdered like chickens. Think! If we kill an estancieiro, won’t delay to grab us. But so far no farmer has been arrested, ” Galeano, lider Guarani-Kaiowá, according to reports João Inácio Wenzel, Forum Mato-grossense environment – UNIVERSAL and Advisor of CEBI-MT, in an article that was submitted and published below.
Here’s the article.
The situation of the Garani-Kaiowá in Mato Grosso do Sul, is really serious. Recently I had the opportunity to accompany a team of Holland that is producing a documentary about the impacts of soy production on indigenous communities and small farmers. With the support of CIMI-MS went to Golden and visit to Guaiviry Village, where he was killed the cacique Nysus in February 2011, Kurusu Ambá, and two roadside camps: Golden and Lady Nhandiru .
Feel the tension of near by both horrifying testimonies by the leaders of the villages data, such as by the pressure and surveillance of white society around any move toward indigenous communities. When we visited the families of Golden Camp, on the edge of BR, just came out from an agent of FUNAI. Soon after went slowly by a federal highway police car watching us, returning shortly thereafter in the same way. The same vehicle approached us in the city of Dourados, when we interview the Attorney Marco Antonio. Asked for personal documents that were in the vehicle, the car and only have to released after about 15 minutes, and we say that we were in the service of the Church. We were afraid it could happen the same as happened with the Canadian team, a little while ago, recorded interviews and was arrested, with the material seized. Only been released upon the intervention of the Office of the Presidency of the Republic, but not all material was returned.
Ask the Attorney Marco Antonio about the cause of so much violence against indigenous peoples, and he said that is by racial hatred. The interview of “Black Scarf” published in the electronic newspaper Midiamaxnews confirms this: “we’re going from to war, and it will be next week. These Indians there, some risk remains. What does left over, we’ll give the pigs to eat “. This hatred manifested in various events that are not isolated facts: in bullet marks that the Guarani Kaiowá showed us in their bodies, in length and in blatant disregard of Justice, and important testimonials that do not appear in the court documents of the federal police, the tractor driver who applied pesticides and stopped the machine in front of the village and continued playing venom. An elderly lady of the village died soon afterwards and, according to testimony of the Guarani, was because of the poison.
At the root of violence is the greed by fertile land, which began in the 1880, with the cultivation of yerba mate, and extends to the present day. At the end of the 19th century and early 20th century settled in this region cattle ranches, politics encouraged later by Getúlio Vargas, who promoted the famous “March to the West”. That’s how the agricultural colony of Dourados in the Indian territory. More agricultural ventures too occupied the spaces of the Guarani Kaiowá territory (tekoha) in the following decades, pushing them to the eight Indian reservations demarcated between 1915 and 1928 by the (UN) protection to the Indians – SPI. All add up to 18,124 ha, where they currently live 40 thousand Guarani-Kaiowá. “The demarcation of those reserves is important to the Government’s strategy of releasing lands for colonization and indigenous population submission to projects of occupation and exploitation of natural resources by indigenous not fronts” (Guarani The 2008, p. 12).
The “green revolution”, with the mechanization of agriculture, led to the end of the villages refuge at the bottom of the farms. The beginning of the reign of the Empire of the monoculture of soybean in 70 years and the creation of the pró-álcool in the Decade of 80 ended up with the rest of the forests and biodiversity. In the face of the Earth rotated, remained the feedlots as spaces of refuge and submission to overgrazing in sugar mills and alcohol.
The violence to which they are subjected to just generating internal conflicts also resulting in the tragic deaths. Traditionally, whenever there was an internal conflict, the territorially separated family groups. Now there is no where else to go. The only flame of hope is to resume the tekoha which were expelled over the last century. Exiled from their land and sacred spaces, began a process of resumption of their lands. An elderly lady, Xurite Lee, who was expelled with his people in Kurusu Ambá by year 1940 so if expressed: “when I was little I would so join fruits. There were farmers here, nor there. People lived in complete freedom. Only after that came the ranchers also began to push, push us until Amambaí. From here on out. After a long time, now that I’m older, I’m returning “. And begins to sing: “we already we will return … Come to rejoice with us here … Come, let us adorn them, says my land … “. Then continues: “this is our traditional territory. Have knowledge of end-to-end, where was our House of prayer, the place of our rituals, our dance, know where abound the Thistles leveraged by my mother and my grandmother, and where are the sources of water. “
Marcal Tupã ‘ i was the first cacique to tip over. Well prophesied the poet and composer Luís Augusto Steps, in the chorus of the song pays homage to this brave warrior: “Mafioso, Marçal, thy death only hastens the day when the high price of this cowardice will be charged by the Guarani”. Around 20 traditional villages were resumed since the years 80, with numerous dead and wounded. A dozen camps spreads on the edge of highways in Mato Grosso do Sul. But do not have conditions of planting. Depend on assistance from government agencies. So the resume Genito, son of cacique Nysus, murdered in November 2011: “Here there are many children, many elders; We have sons and daughters who need to go to school; and also we want to cultivate; We need attention on the part of health, but farmers play poison about us and here we all coughing because of this (…) We also need solar energy to charge our batteries. Get out of here to load our batteries until the city of Amambaí, Ponta Porã, Aral Moreira, are cities that are far away. “
The murder of Nysus was with barbarous refinements. Gone with the body, increasing geometrically the suffering. The Guarani-Kaiowá are very concerned with security. Watch day and night in order not to be caught unawares.
These are the only weapons they have: a mobile phone and a camera without battery, dance, prayer and singing. Find the Guarani-Kaiowá of Guaiviry expanding its prays. The altar had been destroyed three times by gunmen, but the find rebuilt. In all the villages we were greeted with chants of reza and circular dances. “I keep dancing because I want to see our Geofence. When will say: today we demarcate your land, I will be more happy. The truth tell: this is what I want for my descendants if esparramem as seeds for this land “(Xurite Lee).
“We will make here a great feast of dance, religious party to speak with our gods, because it’s been too long that words intersect, come here, there and tell us that farmers have too much money and power; the Government of Brazil and the ranchers also are together, next to each other, “said the witch doctor, on the House of prayer under construction.
The war is uneven. When Sepé Tiaraju, now recognized as a national hero, he fought with bows, arrows and Spears the cannons of the army of Spain and Portugal in the 18th century, the result was the following: the side of the Spanish and Portuguese armies killed two soldiers; the part of the Guarani army and São Sepé 1700 Guarani. They would rather die than surrender to the land of their ancestors.
Today is no different, as notes Genito which today leads the Group: “Since 1983 farmers have killed 583 indigenous. We, the indigenous peoples, we have never killed a farmer only, because we have no weapons and we are always being murdered like chickens. Think! If we kill an estancieiro, won’t delay to grab us. But so far no farmer has been arrested “.
The provision is to resist until death: “we are permanently expelled. But now we’ll consume us on this earth. Our ancestors were consumed on this earth and so that our order is also here “( Nysus‘s son-in-law). “There are many here,” says Shaman, “but I’m not going to back off of the farmers because I’m the one who sings”.
What to do before a situation of ethnocide so pressing in our eyes?
We cannot be liable, as if we were watching the movie “the last of the Guarani-Kaiowá”.
It is not easy to reverse this contempt and banishment of indigenous peoples that threatens the survival of these Nations. Even more in times that the Brazilian Government deepens its marriage with the neoliberal demand, at the same time that is on the rise in the polls.
The least we can do is create an embarrassment to the Brazilian Government is promoting a social apartheid between commodity producers and the Brazilian people. The first all, credit, tax incentives, amending legislation and even the federal Constitution to fatten their bank accounts. The last senior tax charges, bureaucratization of the credit lines, legal impediments.
We also need in oppose to the arguments that the natives are a hindrance to economic development and occupying a lot of land, 12.5% of the Brazilian territory. The problem is not the preservation of indigenous lands, they are ensuring diversity of thousands of species of living beings and plants, and contribute with the environment of the population of the whole world. The problem is the large patroonship that produces commodities, but ends up with biodiversity, pollutes the air, rivers, groundwater, the sea, and still causes serious health problems to the Brazilian people with the application of its pesticides.
We need to find ways to show the local population that is wonderful to be a plural country, different ethnic groups and cultures, we have not only a great social debt with indigenous peoples, but that we have a lot to learn from them.