Guarani-Kaiowá. ” A fight that has lasted a century. ” Special interview with Marco Antônio Delfino de Almeida
Wed, November 7, 2012
Guarani-Kaiowá. ” A fight that has lasted a century. ” Special interview with Marco Antônio Delfino de Almeida
“Despite the mobilization that is taking place now, this is a fight that has lasted almost a century,” the Federal Prosecutor of Mato Grosso do Sul.
Check out the interview.
“It is important that this debate done in front of the cameras have an effective implementation in practice, which does not come with statements and, Yes, with actions”. It is with this statement that the Prosecutor Marco Antonio Delfino de Almeida said the federal Government’s promise to continue the process of demarcation of land, guarani-kaiowá in Mato Grosso do Sul, after the meeting of the Council for the defence of human rights-CDDPHin Brasilia last week. The guarani-kaiowá received eviction order of Puelito camping, occupying the fazenda Cambará, in Mato Grosso do Sul, since last year, but will stay in the territory until the land demarcation process continues.
In evaluating the Prosecutor of Mato Grosso do Sul, “it is necessary that human resources, materials to be provided to indigenous authority for this process of land demarcation proceed. While it does not, we will continue to watch this process media, namely prioritization, there is talk that prioritizes the issue, when in fact the budget, human resources and material resources allocated do not demonstrate that, “said the IHU on-line in an interview by phone.
Last week, the guarani-kaiowá sent a letter of protest to the Federal Public Prosecutor’s Office, demanding the demarcation of their traditional lands in Mato Grosso do Sul and threatening to commit collective suicide. The document generated demonstrations in social networks and echoed in Brasilia. According to Marco Antônio de Almeida, “it is important that people shout ‘ virtually ‘ so that the guarani-kaiowá do not die quietly as died in the last hundred years”.
Marco Antonio Delfino de Almeida (pictured below) has a degree in legal sciences at Centro Universitário de Campo Grande-Unaes and master’s degree in Anthropology from Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados.
Check out the interview. IHU on-line-how do you interpret the statement “we die for our land,” written by the guarani Indians in protest letter published last week?
Marco Antonio Delfino de Almeida -At the hearing that it had in the Senate, the Tonic Benites, guarani-kaiowá anthropologist, spoke in personal sacrifice on behalf of the indigenous community. In the face of suicide history of guarani in the last 10 years, this Declaration of resistance could devolve into a collective suicide, because historically the guarani-kaiowá no physically resisted this process of removal from their land. Then, considering the historical perspective, it is possible to see this form of passive resistance.
IHU on-line-Can contextualize how the occupation process guarani fazenda Cambará, in the municipality of Iguatemi-MS? Why do the guarani occupy only two hectares of the farm?
Marco Antonio Delfino de Almeida -Part of the guarani-kaiowá are in Farm Cambará, in Pyelitocamp, which is the result of a historical process of confinement of indigenous people. Most Indian reservations was marked without any correlation to the territories traditionally inhabited; they were administrative areas that the Government used to “bunching” national workers.The certainly n° 1736/1939 established textually: “that the issue of protection for indigenous peoples is closely linked to the issue of colonization, because it is, in material terms, to guide and to interest the indigenous soil cultivation, so that they become useful to the country and to cooperate with the civilized populations who are dedicated to agricultural activities.”
The Indians always resisted this removal of restrictions on their territories. The Pyelito case is a reflection of this. That is, since the establishment of the Sassoró reserve, bordered by Fazenda Cambará, the Indians refused to stay there and always tried to return to their territory. In the case of the indigenous area of Jaguapiré, they have had success, but have also been forcibly evicted. In 1985, roughnecks and military police evacuated the population of Jaguapiré, and turned out in Sassoró. That is, the Indians have always been removed from their lands and, at that time, without a court order that substantiate the decision.
In the case of Pyelito, the same thing happened. The Indians tried to stay all the time in the traditional territory, and always have been removed. This is a process of violence that has lasted nearly one hundred years. This community remained on the edge of the road and was attacked in both 2009 and 2011, in the same way as happened in the case of the cacique Nísio, who was murdered. That is, the guarani were surprised by hooded men, armed with guns, and that promoted acts of savagery. But the fact is that this process is not started now, and the main violence was committed by the State itself to demarcate or delimit lands that had no correlation with traditional indigenous territories.
IHU on-line-what are the justifications of the notification of eviction of the guarani-kaiowá Kue Pyelito camp by Federal Court of Mato Grosso do Sul?
Marco Antonio Delfino de Almeida – Unfortunately, Justice has just “unaware” that historical process, and considers the land title that particular person has. However, it is important to check what is the origin of the title to that land ownership is socially just. But what usually occurs is a summary procedure for verifying the ownership documents, and prioritization of that possession of documents to the detriment of this historical process of human rights violations. When, in my view, should be the opposite, that is, a matching of the right to property, i.e. purely patrimonial value, and the right to compensation of an acute process of violation of human rights. It is important to have an awareness that it is possible a solution that reconciles the two values. IHU on-line-in which other regions of Mato Grosso do Sul the natives claim traditional territories? How is this process of demarcation of land requested?
Marco Antonio Delfino de Almeida -Today there are approximately 36 camps on roadsides of Mato Grosso do Sul. It is important to note that the indigenous occupy 0.1% of the territory south of mato Grosso, about 30 thousand hectares in total. Of these, good part is located on the edge of the road, in a situation of total vulnerability. In the last 4 years, I noticed at least one attack on camps each year, at least one followed by death, as is the case of the cacique Nísio. Historically, every two years, at least in the last 10 years, a native leader is murdered. So, this is an absolutely critical and social reality that unfortunately had no significant advances in the last ten years.
Despite the mobilization that is taking place now, this is a fight that has lasted nearly a century. In the last decade, only two thousand hectares of indigenous lands were fully occupied by the guarani-kaiowá Indigenous Lands, the Panambizinho and Sucuriy. If making some headway in filling this deadline for the last five years, we will see that no land has been returned to the guarani-kaiowá. In the last ten years, also, there was a single definitive decision of a court case. In this case because there was an awareness of the judiciary, which prioritized the indigenous ownership in the face of possession cartorial. There has been a judicial determination of disengagement from the area by landowners, with the consequent immediate possession by indigenous people. In other cases, which follow the normal process of expert reports and judicial remedies, nothing moved.
IHU on-line-the Federal prosecutors requested that the guarani-kaiowá remain in place until it is terminated the anthropological study of Funai. What is the situation of this study?
Marco Antonio Delfino de Almeida -This study is being carried out since 2007. We hope that the publication of the report soon. In fact, when the federal Government effectively prioritize the issue, it will be possible to have a more appropriate response on the situation. This case of guarani-kaiowá is a typical case, where popular pressure was a key element for a prioritization in the federal Government as a whole and not just the Funai, which always prioritized these issues, but never had the effective support both human resources and material resources. It is important to say this. To verify the degree of prioritization of a particular government action, just check what percentage budget that this activity – priority – supposed to have, and what is the degree of contingency budget that this activity also suffers.
There is talk that the demarcation of indigenous territories and protection is a priority, when it has a high contingency and few resources, which impede faster production anthropological reports on the situation of the guarani-kaiowá. The more resources are allocated, the reports will be produced faster and faster process analysis will be elaborated. However, if there is a shortage of financial resources, it is obvious that the process will take – and this is what happens.
This is not an effective prioritization for the federal Government, because the human and material resources are not allocated in the amount required to settle the matter. There is merely a rant. It is necessary that human resources, materials to be provided to indigenous authority for this process of land demarcation proceed. While it does not, we will continue to watch this process media, namely prioritization, there is talk that prioritizes the issue, when in fact the budget, human resources and material resources allocated do not demonstrate this
IHU on-line-the Lord stated that the demonstration is made on social networks was a reaction rarely seen by the Government when it comes to indigenous rights. What was the weight of events on social networks around the cause of guarani-kaiowá?
Marco Antonio Delfino de Almeida -For the first time, at least that I remember, I saw a note from the President of the Republic on the topic. Then, there was a concern of the Government because of this paradox in that we have, constitutionally, a principle in international relations for the defense of human rights and, internally, there is a very serious problem of violations of those rights. The Brazil has a discourse of human rights protection, defense against violations in countries supposed allies. As, however, reconcile this external defence of human rights protection with an internal frame of violations? Simple measures, for example, have never been undertaken. Recently the President of Colombia apologized for the deaths of 100,000 people in Colombian jungles, acknowledging that atrocities were committed, that they have to be repaired and that the Government is somehow acting for these repairs will be made.
Do not know name how many guarani-kaiowá died in the last hundred years, either from hunger, murdered, or for other reasons. But let’s consider that occur about 60 murders annually, then, in the last ten years, there were about 600, 700. If you bring this one hundred years, is something very serious. Some vehicles assess the Indians as unable to decide on its priorities, as if they had not the capacity to think. This effectively is a medieval vision. Consider that there are degrees of evolution, and that, supposedly, the white race or dominant would have a capacity of thought than the natives. Namely, that the society should conduct these primitive tribal people who would, when they have the absolute ability to drive and there is no relationship of inferiorization. Are communities that have the ability to participate in the strategies and certainly be granted self-determination within their own decision. It is important that this movement on social networks to remain, because we are seeing significant advances in the face of this mobilization, and we hope that they continue. It is important that people “shout virtually” so that the guarani-kaiowá do not die quietly as died in the last hundred years.
IHU on-line-Leaders of ethnic groups guarani-kaiowá and ñandeva guarani-were welcomed on Tuesday afternoon (3010), in Brasilia, the Minister of the Secretariat for human rights, Mary of the Rosary, by Justice Minister Jose Eduardo Cardozo and the President of Funai, Marta Azevedo, during the meeting of the Board of human rights – CDDPH. Any news of the meeting points?
Marco Antonio Delfino de Almeida -At the meeting there was the announcement of the initial decision that the demarcation process will continue. But it is important that this action becomes a budget prioritization, in human and material resources, both to complete the demarcation process as to the process of supporting communities.
In Mato Grosso do Sul, Funai has only an anthropologist, there is shortage of social workers, servers in General. There should be a greater support to the communities, as well as human and material resources, so that the day to day reality of them receive the necessary support. So, it is important that this debate done in front of the cameras have an effective implementation in practice, which does not come with statements and, Yes, with actions. These actions are quantified and qualified by allocation of resources human, material and financial.
IHU on-line-want to add something?
Marco Antonio Delfino de Almeida -It is important and possible to advance. It is possible to find legal solutions to this issue. And the best of them is the federal Government recognize this historic mistake, in which created areas of colonization that were later identified as indigenous. It is important that the Government recognizes, as did the Colombian Government, and make a statement to the return of their territories by indigenous and other involved, that they acted in good faith and were involved in this mess.
Yesterday an Indian told me that when devolution occurs, it is important that resources are also given to forest and plant coverage of these areas can be recovered. There is a lot of criticism in the face of indigenous occupation of these areas, but people are unaware that originally occupied lands did not have this setting environment that exists today. So it is important that resources are given for this recovery can be effected.
Another solution is to think of mechanisms for investors and people who have environmental concern can acquire these areas that are in dispute and then turn them into reserves to make up for the Atlantic forest biome, since much of the indigenous lands in South mato Grosso are in this biome. The idea is that these areas are acquired by a third party, occupied by Indians later used with certificate of environmental reserve until the end of legal proceedings, which could still take a long time. Or, if there is any simple legislative change, it would be possible the compensation even after the approval of the lands within a program that already exists, the National Policy of environmental and Territorial Management of indigenous lands.
Photos: Agency Brazil