Tapajós operation: “The Munduruku don’t want war.” Special interview with Roani Valle
Monday, April 8, 2013
Tapajós operation: “The Munduruku don’t want war.” Special interview with Roani Valle
“We were desolate with the realization that, effectively, the Convention 169 of the ILO in this country is dead by the high degree of obstructions that she suffers,” says anthropologist.
Check out the interview.
“The Munduruku do not want war. They want to be consulted openly and collectively and want your opinion has binding power for the interruption of these works, “says Roani Valle to IHU on-line, after visiting the Munduruku Indians against the construction of the hydroelectric complex of the Tapajós, Pará. The anthropologist was in the village Muybu Sawe at the end of March and was able to show the performance of the National Security Force in the region. “I was very frightened by the situation. Had knowledge of the Tapajós Operation and knew of the tension in the area, not only imagined so much. I saw a night raid in the village perpetrated by strange, unidentified men, doing something similar to what Scouts do, surreptitious observation, probing, stealth espionage; they landed at the port of the village around 10:30 pm March 29 day “, says in an interview by e-mail.
He said 250 men of the National Safety Force-FNS are between the middle and the Alto Tapajós, but only 60 make the escort of the biologists involved with the EIA-Rima of hydropower São Luiz do Tapajós. “As for the other 190 effective men of FNS, which would also be in the region, the information is controversial. There is a version that says they are stationed in the 53rd jungle infantry battalion, in Itaituba (PA), making the relay escort weekly; There is another version that would have directed to the locality of Machado, in second place at Mangabal hydroelectric complex, Jatoba, namely, the operation does not restrict the São Luiz do Tapajós hydroelectric plant; and yet there is a third version that maintains that this quota has been or will be directed to the municipality of Jacareacanga-PA, in the immediate vicinity of the Munduruku Indian land “. And he adds: “If this information is correct, would have occupied strategic points in the area, not, therefore, a process of militarisation geographically specific, but that spreads regionally between the medium and high, with a large fenced”. Roani Valle Ph.d. in archaeology and Assistant professor in Anthropology and Archaeology program of the Federal University of the West of Pará.
Check out the interview.
IHU on-line-In that context and that happens the Tapajós operation in Itaituba, in the West of Pará?
Roani Valle -As far as I can understand, this is in the context of creating guarantees for the implementation of the hydroelectric complex of Tapajos. All with whom I talk-indigenous, social movements, intellectuals, academics, non-governmental organizations etc. – hit this button.
IHU on-line-what is the need of the military presence in the region and how many military personnel participating in the operation?
Roani Valle -As far as I know, there is no real need. This was triggered by arbitrariness, non-indigenous, Government and researchers, who did not lead a dialogue with indigenous peoples and in the areas of use of the village without proper authorization. In this case, the researchers were the first phase of the EIA-Rima of São Luiz do Tapajós, which are caught within the area, were asked to leave because they were encroaching on Indian territory. The Munduruku, as far as I understand, take collective decisions, have a centralized political system that permeates around 116 villages, and only want one thing: to be consulted in the process in advance of actual implementation of the hydroelectric complex. Were not. For the Government, I think that the military presence is necessary to suppress any possible reaction of Munduruku people against the implementation of the Tapajós hydroelectric complex, at the expense of a proper consultation process, that it is necessary. I was informed that the military in the National Security Force-FNS are at the moment between the middle and the Alto Tapajós, with 250 effective men. There is also participation of the 53rd jungle infantry battalion of the army, but I don’t know how many of them are in the area.
The Attorney General of the Union-AGU justifies the military operation in the region as needed to complete the EIA-Rima São Luiz do Tapajós plant in 2013. The information I listed only 60 men say FNS do the escort of biologists who are involved in the EIA-Rima tour São Luiz do Tapajós. As for the other 190 effective men of FNS, which would also be in the region, the information is controversial. There is a version that says they are stationed in the 53rd jungle infantry battalion in Itaituba(PA) doing relay escort weekly; There is another version that would have directed to the locality of Machado, in second place at Mangabal hydroelectric complex, Jatoba, namely, the operation does not restrict the São Luiz do Tapajós hydroelectric plant; and yet there is a third version that maintains that this quota has been or will be directed to the municipality of Jacareacanga-PA, in the immediate vicinity of the Munduruku Indian land. Therefore, if this information is correct, would have occupied strategic points in the area, not, therefore, a process of militarisation geographically specific, but that spreads regionally between the medium and high, with a large fenced.
IHU on-line-the military presence in the region has generated some conflict?
Roani Valle -Direct Conflicts, themselves, none so far. But the tension and fear that I witnessed in the area is large, and can escalate to a more critical situation, depending on the decisions that the federal Government take from now on (remember than occurred in Teles Pires months ago). The permanence in the current situation is unsustainable. The message understood is that there will be a public consultation by force of arms of FNS and the BIS. We want everyone to avoid the repetition of the conflict of Teles Pires in November 2012, what is absolutely undesirable. Between the arrow and the rifle there is complete awareness of who goes missing, and the Munduruku know it. In my view, there will be no confrontation in these terms, because the legal struggle is above all by the legality of the process. The Munduruku do not want war. They want to be consulted collectively and openly and that your opinion has binding power for the interruption of these works.
Who is deciding by a conflict, with perhaps genocidal implications ahead whenever a FAL rifle, or HK 33 15 AIR is targeted to an arrow, is the Brazilian Government. This is because it is not a question of war stricto sensu, which occurs between formal armies of nation States. The first create-environmental conflicts and then militarizá them in order to Resolutive, repressing the reactions of considerable portion of Brazilian society, which is essential to the natural resources of their survival, the Brazilian Government promotes the escalation in terror, psychological violence and food insecurity. In this sense, it is possible to speak in a staggering for a low-intensity war in installation or already installed.
This military doctrine developed in Washington in 1970 involves terror, humiliation, coercion, threat, deletion of access to natural resources and own resources, accessibility and control physical-spatial offset, informational and armed conflict suppression sub-reptícios, camouflaged (as to coibição of environmental crimes), and fast with localized actions and targeted for maximum emotional impact and symbolic in their victims, is a coward but extremely efficient. In this case, I repeat, a possible armed conflict would be only on one side, because only one side has guns. And I repeat: the nature of that seems to approach is best caracterizável in more lenient version as a low-intensity war of short duration and, at worst, as a genocide in the medium term. This word is horrible and causes chills. But unfortunately what we can think if the rifle X arrow become common place in the resolution of environmental problems?
IHU on-line-you recently visited the village of Munduruku. What you can see in this visit?
Roani Valle -Drive a collaborative archaeology project with indigenous teachers Munduruku Munduruku villages from the Middle, and visited the village Sawre Muybu between 29 and 30 March. I was very frightened by the situation. Had knowledge of the Tapajós and operation voltage in the area knew, not only imagined so much. I saw a night raid in the village perpetrated by strange, unidentified men, doing something similar to what Scouts do, surreptitious observation, probing, stealth espionage; they landed at the port of the village around 10:30 pm of the day March 29 (with the power generator connected cannot hear motorized craft approach), so we assume that have esgueirado by the trail that leads up to the village and lit with the Lantern, which startled the residents of this residence, which gave the General alert immediately.
The Munduruku are skilled hunters used to trace hunting in the forest at night and, to understand the approach, went to the wake of invaders who have escaped quickly. There was, in fact, an attempt to RAID the perimeter village home by unknown elements. Identify brands of boots and flight in an area adjacent to the port of the village, we suggested a stealth military incursion. But we cannot prove this fact, with the evidence found. Regardless, the fear and terror were in the village and on the night of 29 to 30 March no one slept. People, mostly children and the elderly, have been very badly, there was wailing and despair, inner joins will still childish. In addition to that the military aircraft raids over the village on 26 and 27 March, reported by the people, in which a military helicopter stood above the football field in the village, giving laps around the perimeter for 30 minutes while dozens of crowded military boats passed, not by chance, in front of the village by the River (day 26).
It is understood well the extent of the terror those people passed between 26 and March 30, 2013. A material fact is found which all productive activities (hunting, fishing, agriculture, production of flour) were paralyzed or reduced to levels insufficient to meet the demands of survival of the village, on the basis of the State of fear there introduced, generating a situation of food insecurity. All feared Teles Pires and his semiotics of death, the helicopter and the stealthy night RAID initially reattached the terrifying memories of that situation in the Munduruku of this village, and we don’t. We are all traumatised.
IHU on-line-according to Federal prosecutors, the Munduruku do not accept studies for plants on their land until it is made the consultation that the Convention 169 of the International Labour Organisation requires. As this issue has been discussed among the involved?
Roani Valle -The Indians have a lot of clarity than weighs on them and their rights; know that the Convention 169 of the ILO, although on paper has been signed by Brazil since 2004, in practice has not had effect: there is no precedent for it, there is no case-law on Brazilian soil for such internationally applied device. What there is is a series of devices imposed as the Portaria n. 303, the PEC 215, the Chair of the Committee of environment of the Brazilian Senate in the hand of the largest sojeiro in the country, and more recently the Decree No 7,957-2013, establishing the Permanent Office of Integrated Management for the protection of the environment and regulating the activities of armed forces in environmental protection. In practice, this seems to reduce the militarization of all environmental issues in Brazil. Based on this, we were desolate with the realization that, effectively, the Convention 169 in this country is dead by the high degree of obstructions that she suffers. Is not applied in the current situation as it is, in my understanding, a “bad deal” for big business (inter) national acting ostensibly behind and ahead of Amazonian plants, and the large national development project.
IHU on-line-what are the major difficulties in dialogue between the Munduruku and representatives of the federal Government?
Roani Valle -Could cut short an answer to this question by various paths, but ontologically, in essence, I believe that represent projects of human existence, which is cause by deliberate choice of one of the projects. The Brazilian Government model, and of the international agenda to which it submits, is predatory, based on accumulation and industrial consumption goods and unsustainable behaviour to the planetary biosphere in the short term. The Munduruku represent an ancient human philosophy in quasi-social stasis with the Amazonian ecosystems. In my view, cognitive-epistemological systems are incompatible and in competition for the same share of natural resources.
Phenomena such as this has been repeated at other times in the history of human ecology since the speciation of homo sapiens sapiens in Africa 200,000 years ago. We are the only species of our genre alive in the last 25 years. A biological anomaly. Why is it? But it is not relativize through biological reducionismos the human conflicts; It is a war (in broad sense) between worldviews that has lasted years, 513 interexcludente aspect is artificial, is a cultural, political, and economic construction, but not an inevitability. While the inexorability of the construction of hydroelectric power stations is defended-a wicked invention of human creativity deliberately misleading way chasing a drunk for a symbolic cognitive blindness – and the Government acting unilaterally in territories Munduruku, with overt military presence, dialogue will be at least reduced the trading of accusations. In my understanding, as long as they have their land and its river, the Munduruku are able to survive in this world almost quietly. The problem is us, or rather, the Brazilian State and its branches extranacionais determinants.
IHU on-line-In meeting with the Munduruku, Gilberto Carvalho said that the complex of Teles Pires is necessary. In fact it is?
Roani Valle -I’m no expert on the subject, but it is possible that this fits in the same fallacy of inexorability development mentioned above. It is not, was not and never will be the only alternative. There is no single way in life, in the life processes. To say that culturally is a fallacy equivalent; inevitability is a biological-cultural and philosophical fallacy. Another questionable process is irreversible when coadunado the inexorability in human choices. At this level both arguments, when operating together, are fallacious, although the irreversibility exist in the physical world and, therefore, biological-cultural, because it is a property of matter, in its physical concept, a State, or condition, possible existence of things, and their transformative processes. Achieve it, however, is relatively rare.
Irreversible processes are usually catastrophic magnitude, volcanic eruptions, meteor impacts and hydroelectric stations, for example, have this ability to affect ecosystem processes in irreversible levels. The difference in relation to the first two disasters is not the pick. Therefore, it is not necessary as a condition sine qua non, because there is a very explicit political choice about it. It is not necessary for the Brazil, is chosen for Brazil, to play an instrumental role of supplier of cheap raw materials (energy), but high social and environmental cost, in a world where we don’t have much less autonomy hegemony (this second totally expendable). Frightening is the lack of qualified debate in the Brazilian population, in all classes and levels of education, and their complacency and widespread accession to this collective hallucination of developmental inexorability.
IHU on-line-what are the implications of the construction of the São Luiz do Tapajós to the Munduruku Indians?
Roani Valle -There are several possibilities, all worrying. In an extreme scenario, but realistic and plausible, we can speak of extermination in the medium term by suppression of natural resources as one of them, as well as food insecurity and hunger. If there is military action more incisive and continued running in open conflict, then one can think of physical death of a population faster. Finally, a scenario of genocide, that is, sensu stricto, extermination of a particular genetic lineage of homo sapiens sapiens or significant reduction in dangerous and their genetic variability (bottleneck effect), can be ventilated as possible derived from the other.
You can think of another extreme but plausible scenario, but with less physical death, that is, a large indigenous population being forced to adopt a standard of living alien, a standard of living similar to that of the portion of the national non-indigenous society poorer. Without autonomy in economic and social survival resources suffer a process of rapid and profound cultural change, deterioration of social and environmental standards symbolic, linguistic, philosophical, “traditional” in other words, ethnocide may be other less extreme process that the genocide, but no less terrible price to be paid by the current development model.
The fact is that the abrupt and profound environmental change will have a catastrophic effect for the human adaptability tapajônica (Amazon) and, in this case, the irreversibility is not misleading, is real and enforced. Biocultural extinction events are plausible. If you are deployed the way are being planned and carried out, these two ghastly scenarios are feasible in the medium term. But, as a scientist, I do not believe in inexorability, and have little faith in irreversibility trivialized. Therefore, it is possible to build another path. The indigenous peoples in the Americas, in most cases-and here on Amazon is no different – spent most of the last 20,000 years (and this is a conservative archeologically) doing it, building simultaneously multiple developers.
IHU on-line-you want to add something?
Roani Valle -I want to return to the point of collective engagement of the Brazilian society in this collective hallucination of developmental inexorability. It is possible that the phenomenon “Lula” has been a causal factor of this homogenization. Myself wondering if, in a sense, this phenomenon did not represent a sophistication in the technology of social, political and emotional control of the international capitalist system. It would have been, so more than a granting system, was actually an evolutionary jump within the biotecnosfera. A political-cultural example of punctuated equilibria, which operates a microrrevolução, abrupt, intense and punctual in the mechanisms of domination and power, after which follows a reestabilização amplified controller, the current Government.
Or we can think in a kind of exaptation, in which a brilliant mind articulator popular and Trade Union becomes a valuable tool and sophisticated social and ideological control of the capital, as the pen used to write but can serve to rewind tapes, or hold the hair.
Is in one way or another, results in preparing the ground for a new process of expansion of the system, a new generation of mechanisms of control and domination. An example so successful that the second largest capitalist force of Earth represented on a national State, the UNITED STATES, would try to replicate a similar experience, adapted to their specific situation, with the Obama phenomenon. But this is only a speculation that these two cases would represent a homology.
The fact is that we are living difficult times, particularly for the indigenous peoples and traditional populations, and can worsen. But they are choices. And choices are not unavoidable by nature; Some may be irreversible, as is the case of plants. Terrible irreversibilidades chosen by few and imposed on many with the fallacious argument of inevitability development required.
Note the IHU on-line: Photos:  Telma Monteiro  Fernanda Ligabue